Teaching aids are divided into three categories which consist of various types, namely:

  • Non -electronic Teaching Aids
  • Electronic Teaching Aids
  • Experiential patterned materials and real materials

2.1 NON -ELECTRONIC TEACHING AIDS

  • Non -electronic teaching aids are teaching aids that still use a blackboard or blackboard.
  • It is usually used to record the contents of the lesson when teaching.

2.1.1 Textbooks

  • Textbooks are teaching aids specially written by several authors and authors
  • It is also widely used and is a major source of teaching and training.

2.1.2 Exhibition Board

  • Exhibit boards are also known as bulletin boards and they are a productive teaching resource.
  •  Able to introduce new ideas, provide information, provide understanding, enrich vocabulary, stimulate discussion, create creativity, form attitudes and values ​​and increase the retention of a student’s learning.

2.1.3 Vertical Files and Reading Materials

  • Consists of printed materials that are non-book reading materials
  • Examples are magazines, calendars, postcards, newspapers, pamphlets or bulletins, posters, charts, maps, scripted pictures and so on.
  • Saved as a collection of files in the file cabinet.
  • Able to add and diversify reading materials and reference sources in school resource centers or classrooms.

2.1.4 Figure

  • Used to start lessons to interest students or if the actual material is difficult to bring into the classroom.

2.1.5 Scan Card or Merge Card

  • Consists of words or phrases.
  • Introduces new words and it is suitable for primary school level students.

2.1.6 Chart

  • Systematic arrangement of information.

Contains letters, numbers, pictures, tables, diagrams, sketches, brief notes, phrases, symbols and drawings.

  • Types of charts used in the classroom:
  • Flip/latch chart
  • Turning chart
  • Flowchart
  • Graph chart
  • Pie chart
  • Single chart

2.1.7 Graph

  • Material drawn as a visual composition that can provide one or more visual descriptions.
  • Able to improve teaching performance and understanding of lessons.

2.1.8 Teaching board

  • Suitable for teaching in groups of about 25 students.
  • Useful to show a picture of a lesson that has communicative power and can motivate students.
  • Types of teaching boards
  • Bulletin boards
  • Signboard
  • Flannel boards-plywood boards lined with flannel cloth
  • White board
  • Magnetic board
  • Insert board
  • Scroll board-can replace regular whiteboard
  • Pocket board
  • Pull wheel board

2.1.9 Model

  • Substitute material that resembles the actual material.
  • Three-dimensional material that represents the structure, shape or how something works:-
  1. Model type
  • Scaled model – The rate of enlargement/reduction is different from the actual material.
  • Cutting model – Cutting
  • Imagination Model – A three -dimensional depiction of the journey of something can be made of paper, clay, cement, wood dust, styrofoam or plaster of Paris.

2.1.10 Dolls

  • In the form of people, animals or plants.
  • Used in teaching storytelling or dialogue.
  • Made of cloth, cotton, clay and soaking paper.

2.2 ELECTRONIC TEACHING AIDS

  • Electronic teaching aids are teaching aids that use electronics.
  • It is usually used to record the contents of the lesson when teaching.

2.2.1 Overhead Projector (OHP)

  • Used for briefing and teaching lecture methods.
  • The effectiveness of transparency is greatly influenced by the amount and quality of information loaded into it. (Concise, interesting and meaningful).

2.2.2 Transparency

Advantages of using transparency:

  • Can be provided in the form of colors to give emphasis and attention.
  • Provide comfort during delivery especially if the transparency is provided early.
  • Can be used repeatedly and delivery is more systematic.

Transparency is also clean compared to chalk boards.

2.2.3 Slide Tape (Slide Film)

  • Slide Film-A type of motionless media that is a kind of small-sized positive transparency.
  • Very often used in science teaching especially in Biology teaching.
  • Able to attract students.
  • Able to describe real situations and bring outdoor situations into the classroom.
  • The content of the presentation is neat and organized and can be used repeatedly, changed and added.

2.2.4 Radio

  • For language teaching.
  • Educational radio broadcasts that follow the syllabus can be used.

2.2.5 Televisions and VCRs

  •  Can encourage students to use their senses of sight and hearing.
  • Able to modernize the approach of teachers in the process of teaching and learning more effectively.

2.2.3 Slide Tape (Slide Film)

  • Slide Film-A type of motionless media that is a kind of small-sized positive transparency.
  • Very often used in science teaching especially in Biology teaching.
  • Able to attract students.
  • Able to describe real situations and bring outdoor situations into the classroom.
  • The content of the presentation is neat and organized and can be used repeatedly, changed and added.

2.2.4 Radio

  • For language teaching.
  • Educational radio broadcasts that follow the syllabus can be used.

2.2.5 Televisions and VCRs

  • Can encourage students to use their senses of sight and hearing.
  • Able to modernize the approach of teachers in the process of teaching and learning more effectively.

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